Almost any modern computer consists of several basic elements. Let’s look at them.
- a system unit is a box in which various devices are installed. These devices form the main computing power of the computer. They are made in the form of printed circuit boards, which through special connectors (slots) are installed on one of the largest – the main board. This board is called the motherboard.
- monitor – allows you to visualize all computer data processing processes.
- keyboard – a device that allows you to enter data into a computer or set commands
- the mouse is a special manipulator that allows you to control the graphical interface of programs and the operating system.
- external devices – you can make a huge list of external (peripheral) devices that can be connected to a computer. The fact is that peripheral devices expand the capabilities of a computer, and since computers are widely used in various fields of human activity, peripheral devices can be very specific. The most famous and widely used external devices are removable storage media (flash drives, usb disks, etc.), printers and scanners.
So, this was a general list of the main components of any computer. In the following notes, we will deal with each element of the personal computer separately in more detail.
- System unit device
- What is processor
- Why do I need a motherboard
- What is ram for
- computer storage devices
- Work with storage media
- Why do I need a Graphics card
- What is a sound card?
- computer case
- Computer power supply
- Computer Monitors
- computer Printers
- Computer Scanners
- What is computer modem for?
- Uninterruptible power source
- Computer connectors
- How to choose a computer
System unit device
As we already know, the system unit is a box in which various devices are installed that form the main computing power of the computer. These devices are printed circuit boards.
Let’s remove the system unit cover and look inside.
Inside, you will most likely see a bunch of different boards and obscure devices, but it is possible that there will be only one board in your computer (more on this later).
Here is a list of devices that must be inside the system unit of your computer:
- Video card
Without the devices listed above, your computer will not work. These are mandatory devices that must be on any computer, but in addition to these mandatory devices, other additional cards, such as a sound card, modem, or network card, can be installed on your computer.
Additional devices only expand the capabilities of the computer, but without the required devices the computer simply will not work.
Now let’s look at the situation when you removed the cover of the system unit and found only one board, instead of the above five. The computer is working, but there are fewer boards. What is the matter? And the fact is that for some time now, in the pursuit of cheaper computer equipment, manufacturers began to integrate individual devices into the main one – the motherboard. This means that, for example, the video card in the computer is not represented by a separate printed circuit board, but is already soldered into the motherboard.
In a lot of office and budget modern computers, the following devices are integrated into the motherboard:
- Video card
- Sound card
- LAN card
- and even sometimes the processor
Such integration allows you to significantly reduce the cost of the computer or make the computer miniature, because all individual boards occupy a certain amount in the computer case.
Well, in the following notes we will deal with each individual device in the system unit.
What is processor
In the system unit is the main brain of the computer – the central processor (Eng. CPU, Central Processing Unit ). The processor controls the data streams through special commands. The processor itself also perceives special commands that control its actions. These commands are sent to him by programs installed on the computer.
From the above it follows that it is the central processor that manages all the affairs on your personal computer, but at the same time it does not what it “thinks” to it, but clearly executes the orders of the programs currently working.
There are currently two main processor manufacturers, these are Intel and AMD.
The main characteristic of the processor, showing its speed, is the so-called clock frequency. It is measured in megahertz (MHz) or gigahertz (GHz) and indicates how many millions of operations per second a given processor can perform.
Now you can easily find on sale the so-called multi-core processors containing two, four or more cores. Multi-core means that a single central processor contains two, four or more sub-processors, which is why such processors at the same clock speed (as single-core) provide greater performance, as they can perform several operations in parallel.
more about CPU here: what is a computer processor
Why do I need a motherboard
The processor , like most devices, inside the system unit , is installed on the motherboard.
So why do you need a motherboard and what is motherboard function ?
It is the motherboard, or as it is also called the system board, that provides the processor connection with other computer devices. It has the largest dimensions and is installed on the side surface of the computer case. All other devices are installed in special connectors (slots) that are located on the motherboard.
To reduce the cost of computers, it has recently become very popular to integrate the most popular devices among users into the motherboard. This means that on the board, in addition to the main components of the motherboard itself, there are still details of individual devices.
For example, it is now difficult to purchase a motherboard without a built-in sound card or network card. These devices are so popular that without them you can’t imagine a complete computer. Although it is worth noting that some music lovers still get a separate sound card, which is installed either in the slot on the motherboard or connected to the USB connector. In this case, it is usually about professional use of sound, and for the vast majority of users, an integrated audio system will be enough.
Miniature motherboards are also very popular now, on the basis of which you can assemble a very compact computer in size. In such motherboards, in addition to sound and network cards, a video card and even a processor are often integrated. Such motherboards are used, as a rule, in office computers, where special performance is not needed.
What is ram for
In essence, all programs installed on a computer are nothing more than a set of commands and codes. For this reason, the running program must be stored somewhere. This is exactly what RAM is intended for ( Random Access Memory ). I.e. random access memory of a computer or RAM is a device that is designed to store data processed by the processor. more about Ram can be found here: ram Types and definition
The word "operational" was used for a reason, since this type of memory provides fast (operational) access to data. But the design of RAM allows you to store data in it only when the computer is turned on, since the RAM chips require constant power. Therefore, when you turn off the computer, all information from the RAM disappears.
RAM is installed in special connectors on the motherboard.
To measure the amount of memory using the same units as for measuring the amount of data (information). This special unit of measurement is called bytes . There are smaller units – bits , and 1 byte =8bits .
What are bits and why 1 byte is equal to 8 bits, we will not parse. This is absolutely optional information for the average user. But still, I will give an example that will give an idea of what a byte is. The amount of information in 1 byte is one letter in a text document. In 1 byte, as you understand, there is a small amount of information (just one character), therefore, larger units are usually used.
- 1 kilobyte (KB) = 1024 bytes;
- 1 megabyte (MB) = 1024 kilobytes;
- 1 gigabyte (GB) = 1024 megabytes;
- 1 terabyte (TB) = 1024 gigabytes.
The prefixes “kilo”, “mega”, etc., are borrowed from ordinary life, but unlike, for example, 1 kilometer containing 1000 meters, 1 kilobyte contains 1024 bytes. Why it happened to us is not necessary to know. The amount of information is a very arbitrary amount and in ordinary life, everyone has long been rounded up to 1024 to 1000.
computer storage devices
Since when you turn off the computer all the information from the RAM disappears, we need a device that could store all our programs and personal information, regardless of whether the computer is turned on or not.
Such a device is a hard disk (Eng. HDD, Hard Drive Disk ). In colloquial speech, you can also hear the name “Winchester” or “screw”.
The hard drive, like all other devices, is located inside the system unit in a special compartment where it is attached with screws. The hard drive is connected to the motherboard with a special cable, which is called a loop. There are two main connectors on the motherboard for connecting hard drives. More precisely, there are three, but one is rarely used in home computers.
Legacy IDE ( Integrated Drive Electronics ) connectors are no longer installed on modern motherboards , but if your computer is no longer young, then these connectors may well be in it.
Currently, the SATA (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment) connector is widely used. Do not be afraid of these terrible abbreviations. This is just a designation of the type of connector, that is, simply saying “sockets” into which a “plug” is stuck.
If you decide to replace the hard drive of your computer with a larger one, then you need to know what type of connector is used on your motherboard. You can take the whole system unit with you to the store, and the sales assistant will select the options for hard drives on the spot. Or there is a simpler option – take with you only a book from the motherboard. It will describe all the connectors, including for connecting hard drives and the sales assistant will not be difficult to choose a hard drive for you.
The volume of hard drives, as well as RAM, is measured in bytes, more precisely in megabytes and terabytes. All your information is stored on the hard drive. These are your photos, films, music and text documents. Program and the operating system Windows is also stored in the form of files and folders on your hard drive.
In addition to hard drives, information can be stored on so-called removable media for a long time. From the name it is clear that with the help of removable media you can transfer information from one computer to another.
The hard drive in your computer is installed inside the system unit. Although it can be removed, but still it is considered a non-removable medium. But various flash drives or external hard drives that are connected via the USB connector (we’ll talk about the connector a bit later) belong to this class of devices.
Flash drives are probably the most popular type of removable storage medium at the moment, but it’s still too early to write off CDs.
CD and DVD drives
Up to 700 MB of information can be recorded on CDs that are less and less used. But on DVDs a lot more – up to 4.7 GB. There are more capacious DVDs, but their price is usually unreasonably high.
To work with CDs and DVDs, a special device must be installed on your computer – a CD or DVD drive. CD drives can only read CDs, but DVD drives, both CDs and DVDs.
There are also drives that only allow you to read information from disks, and there are so-called write drives that allow you to write your information to disk.
On ordinary blank optical discs (CD or DVD) you can only record information once. Such discs themselves are often called colloquial discs. These discs are usually referred to as CD-R or DVD-R.
There are discs that support multiple dubbing. They are designated CD-RW and DVD-RW, respectively. Moreover, DVD-ROMs also have such subspecies – minus and plus discs (DVD-R or DVD + R). Plus and minus indicate the various disc recording formats. The so-called “minus” discs were originally intended for various video equipment (DVD-players, etc.), and “plus” – for computers. But now this difference is not significant, because modern drives work with both types of disks. Unless you can encounter such a problem – you record a movie on your computer on a “positive” disc and try to view it in an old DVD player, but it most likely does not recognize this disc.
To install a disk, just press the appropriate button on your drive and insert the disk with the mirror side down into the extended tray. Then press the same button again or gently push the tray with your hand to close it.
everything about Storage devices: types, volume, technologies
Work with storage media
All storage media on the computer are presented in the form of disks. In order to be able to work with storage media (with hard drives, CD drives, flash drives, etc.), we came up with the following – for each of the devices connected to the computer, a special drive is allocated, which is automatically assigned a letter of the Latin alphabet with the colon following the letter (for example, A :, B :, C :, D: etc.). Disk names A: and B: were initially assigned to the so-called floppy disks. Drive A: was assigned to a 3.5-inch diskette reader, and drive B: 5-inch.
Floppy disks are almost never used and diskette readers are no longer installed in computers.
However, you may still find older computers with floppy drives. If a floppy drive is not installed in the computer, then its letter (name) is skipped.
The following letters are C :, D :, E: and so on, assigned to the names of the so-called logical drives.
Let’s deal with this in more detail. We already know that a hard disk (hard drive) is installed in the computer. You can connect several hard drives to the computer, but we will consider the most common case – only one hard drive is installed in the computer. That is, you have one hard drive, but there can be many logical drives. Logical drives are conditional areas on the same physical hard drive. They are called logical, because physically the disk is alone, but on it a special program creates areas that are perceived by the computer as separate disks.
The number and size of logical drives is determined by you or another person who installs the operating system on your computer. Also, you can always change the number of logical drives or resize them. The total volume of logical drives is equal to the size of your hard drive. That is, if you bought a 500 GB hard drive, then the sum of the volumes of all logical drives will be approximately equal to 500 GB. I say “approximately”, because with the measurement of the amount of information there are certain nuances that we have already talked about.
If your hard drive was divided into three logical drives, then they will get the names – C :, D: and E: respectively. Next, the names of the logical disks are followed by the letter assigned to the device for reading or writing to CDs (CD or DVD), if such devices are installed on your computer. Those. if you have a DVD drive installed on your computer, it will be assigned the following letter – F :. If you have two CD / DVD drive, then the letter G: will be assigned to the next device.
When you connect removable storage media to your computer, such as a USB flash drive or an external USB drive, they are assigned the following letters in alphabetical order.
The figure shows the Explorer window. Drives C :, D: and E: are logical, i.e. these are conditional areas of one physical hard drive. Drive F: – DVD drive, drive H: – removable hard drive connected via USB, drive G: – flash drive.
Why do I need a Graphics card
The video card is responsible for displaying information on the monitor. The video card takes over the functions of “transferring” processor signals that are incomprehensible to the monitor, and also removes data processing functions from the processor that are designed to form an image on the monitor.
As is the case with processors, there are two main manufacturers of graphics cards. This is ATI, which has been a division of AMD (series of Radeon adapters ) since 2006 and nVidia (series of GeForce adapters).
As a result of competition between these companies, very expensive and very powerful video cards are constantly appearing, designed to process a huge amount of video data and create very realistic images in all kinds of games. As a result of this confrontation, less efficient video cards are falling in price, which is very beneficial for us – end users.
These two companies produce chips – microcircuits, which are a kind of video processor. The chips are engaged in processing video information, which cool offload the central processor. Based on these chips, a large number of companies create their own video cards. Therefore, you can see not only ATI and NVidia video cards on sale, but also Asus, MSI and many other manufacturers, however, the name of such video cards invariably contains the chip designation on the basis of which these video cards were created (for example, Radeon or GeForce).
A video card is such a peculiar video computer that has its own processor (chip) and operational (video) memory.
Video cards differ in the amount of video memory installed on them. For office tasks, the cheapest video card from the choice of video adapters that is presented in the store will be enough.
But still, you should not buy the cheapest graphics card. Pay attention to inexpensive video cards from the line of video cards of a well-known manufacturer, since having bought the cheapest card from an unknown manufacturer (the so-called no-name cards), you may experience problems both with the video card itself and with the stability of the computer as a whole.
In addition, special motherboards are being developed for office computers , into which a video card is already integrated (integrated). The acquisition of such a motherboard is an ideal solution for an office computer.
If you want to assemble or purchase a computer for toys, that is, in order to run the most modern games on this computer, then you will have to fork out for a very expensive modern video card. But I do not recommend this, because prices for such new items will fall by 30-50% as soon as a newer model is released.
To work with graphics in professional programs such as 3DS Max or in engineering programs, you will need a professional graphics card, which is also not cheap.
learn more about graphic cards
What is a sound card?
In order for you to enjoy music while working on the computer or realistic sounds during the game, a special board must be installed in the system unit of your computer – a sound card . In addition to it, you will also need speakers or headphones that connect to the output jack of the sound card.
The sound card can be either built-in or separate. A separate sound card is a separate device in the form of a printed circuit board with various microcircuits, which is installed in a computer, or rather in a special connector on the motherboard .
In the case of an integrated or integrated sound card, its microcircuits are immediately located on the motherboard, i.e. It is part of the motherboard.
Modern sound cards are distinguished mainly by the number of audio channels, since the other parameters of almost all sound cards are quite comparable and if you are not a music lover or musician, then you most likely will be satisfied with the most ordinary card, either built into the motherboard or a separate one from the average price categories. Such sound cards are quite capable of reproducing sound at the level of musical centers, and also allow you to record your voice from an external microphone.
If you are a lover of high-quality sound or a musician, then the built-in sound card is unlikely to suit you. In this case, I recommend that you pay attention to professional sound cards. They are often performed in the video of a separate external device, which is connected to the computer with a cable via a USB connector. Well, the price of these cards is much higher and starts around $ 100.
If your computer has a sound card and speakers are connected to it, then your computer can be called multimedia.
Multimedia is a combination of hardware and software that allows you to simultaneously act on different senses. Usually, this concept is understood as audio and video information, although the concept itself also includes text and graphics.
The system unit is a computer case in which all the devices mentioned earlier are installed. How to choose computer case
I think that you paid attention in a computer store that there is a wide variety of computer cases. The appearance of the cases can vary greatly in shape, color, and the presence of various additional “lotions”, but all cases have a criterion that determines their size.
Like everything in the computer world, computer cases have strictly defined sizes – a form factor . There are several currently most popular form factors – these are ATX , Micro-ATX , Mini-ITX .
Periodically, new form factors appear. Some of them are not widespread, some take root. The form factor is nothing but the size of the case. Each form factor determines the height, width, and length of the case. Exactly the same form factors have motherboards , which allows you to choose a motherboard of the appropriate size for a specific model of the case.
In addition to form factors, there is another parameter that determines not only the dimensions of the case, but also its position in space. If you have heard the names “Desktop” and “Tower”, then this is exactly what I want to talk about.
Desktop (“Desktop”) is a “lying” case, that is, the case is located horizontally. Such cases are widespread in low-power office computers. They are located horizontally directly on the table and they often have a monitor.
In home computers, gaming and various powerful computers (graphic stations, servers, etc.) use a different type of enclosures – Tower (“Tower”). This is a vertically located housing, which is usually located on the floor. This type of enclosure has subcategories that determine the sizes: Mini – small, Midi ( Middle ) – medium, Big – large, etc. In addition, there are often signs indicating the size of the case without indicating its position: Slim – thin, Server – server, etc.
When buying a computer, choose the case (system unit) based on where you plan to place it – horizontally on the table, on the table next to the monitor, under the table, etc.
The case is an important part of the computer, since all devices are located in it. An insufficiently spacious and poorly ventilated case can cause computer malfunctions, and sometimes even cause the computer to fail. Therefore, do not save on the case.
There are many well-known case manufacturers. So, the INWIN company cases have proved themselves for a long time and only on the good side, but their price can be twice as high as the cost of cases of unknown manufacturers. There is nothing to be done – you have to pay for quality.
Typically, well-known computer manufacturers, such as DELL , Lenovo , Hewlett Packard , use their own enclosures.
Computer power supply
A power supply is the heart of your computer. For some reason, when buying a computer, the power supply is given the least attention. Buying a poor-quality power supply can lead to the failure of computer devices or the power supply itself.
Often, the power supply is already installed in the housing and is sold with it. That is why I do not recommend purchasing cases of unknown manufacturers, since with these cases you also get a power supply of dubious quality.
Expensive case models are often sold without a power supply. In this case, you need to purchase it additionally.
The main characteristic of a power supply is its power. If you buy a modern computer with a powerful processor and video card , be sure to make sure that your power supply will “pull” such a load. A consultant in a computer store will tell you which of the power supplies is best to buy. But in no case do not get the cheapest available on the window.
And so, we examined the main components of the system unit . As you understand, the system unit is just a metal box with a bunch of printed circuit boards. In order to assemble a full-fledged computer, it is necessary to connect devices for inputting information (keyboard, mouse) and a device for outputting information (monitor) to the system unit.
Information obtained as a result of data processing is displayed on the monitor, i.e. the monitor allows you to visualize the results of the programs. The monitor also provides the ability to visually see the input data and control the operation of programs.
The main characteristics of the monitor are its resolution and screen size.
With the screen size, I think everything is clear. Like TVs, screen sizes are measured in inches on its diagonal. For example, 15 ″, 17 ″, 19 ″, 22 ″, 24 ″, etc. It is clear that the larger the diagonal of the monitor, the more information the computer can display on the monitor and the more pleasant it is to work at the computer.
Now let’s figure out the resolution. The image on the monitor is formed from points called pixels. The dots are arranged in rows, and the resolution of the monitor shows how many dots vertically and horizontally are contained. The more dots, the sharper the image will be. Monitor resolution is indicated as follows: the number of horizontal dots x the number of vertical dots, for example, 1280×1024.
A few years ago, you could meet CRT monitors (CRT, Cathode Ray Tube) in the store, i.e. monitors based on a cathode ray tube.
Currently, they are replaced by liquid crystal (LCD) monitors (LCD monitors, Liquid Crystal Display).
In addition to these basic characteristics, LCD monitors can be with a classic aspect ratio of 4: 3 or widescreen with a ratio of 16: 9. When choosing a liquid crystal monitor, it is usually recommended to pay attention to the following characteristics:
- matrix type
- matrix response time
- screen dot size
- maximum viewing angles
Modern monitors can be divided into several price categories. For models of the same price category, these parameters practically do not differ, so I see no reason to go into such details. Determine how much money you are willing to spend on a monitor and choose the monitor you like the most in your price category. It also makes sense to find out about your favorite monitor model on the Internet, that is, just read the reviews of people who have already bought this model. Even the most famous manufacturers have unsuccessful models, and reading reviews can save you from possible problems in the future. Of course, the most ideal option is to recommend friends who already have a good, proven monitor.
When buying a monitor, it makes sense to immediately check the absence of “broken” pixels on the screen. A broken (i.e., faulty) pixel will be displayed on the screen as a black dot (or a dot of a different color). This is not scary, but unpleasant. Moreover, if you find such a pixel already at home, then most likely you will not change the monitor, since manufacturers allow a certain number of “broken” pixels on the monitor screen and this is not considered a malfunction.
To check the monitor, ask the seller to connect the monitor to the computer and fill the entire screen sequentially with red, green, blue, white and black colors. There are special test programs for this and usually in stores this procedure is done without problems. At the same time, carefully look at the screen. All points on the screen must be the same color. If at least one dot is not lit or lit in a different color, ask to replace the monitor. more about computer monitor here
You can connect a large number of different devices to the computer that expand its capabilities. These devices are called peripheral devices. These include printers, scanners, modems, and other devices.
Peripheral devices can vary significantly in their functionality and in the way they connect to a computer. Therefore, I recommend that you carefully study the instructions for the device before connecting it to a computer.
The most popular peripheral device is a printer. Printers are designed to display text and graphic information on paper.
Two types of printers are currently the most popular:
- inkjet printers , the principle of which is based on the formation of images from dots, by spraying drops of liquid ink;
- laser printers , which form images by preliminary preparation of the surface with a laser beam, followed by applying a special powder (toner) and sintering the powder into paper.
Laser printers are more expensive, but they are more economical and faster.
Inkjet printers are slower but cheaper.
If you decide to purchase a printer, be sure to pay attention to the price of its cartridges.
A cartridge is a special container for the material used to print, that is, liquid ink for inkjet printers and toner (powder) for laser printers.
Very often, inexpensive printer models have expensive cartridges, so it makes sense to think about buying a more expensive printer with cheaper supplies (cartridges), which will pay off in the future.
A scanner is a device that allows you to convert graphic and text information into electronic form. That is, it is such a kind of camera for documents and images.
After scanning, the image can be edited or sent by e-mail.
If you scan a text document, such as a book, then its text can later be recognized using a special program (for example, ABBYY FineReader) and then edited in a regular text editor.
What is computer modem for?
Using a modem, you can connect two or more computers to a network or connect to the Internet. Now the most popular modems that use a connection over telephone lines.
Modems are usually classified by data rate, i.e. how many bits of information per second the modem is able to transmit / receive.
Modems are internal and external . Internal modems are a board with a socket for connecting a telephone wire. The board is installed in a special connector on the motherboard .
External modems are usually connected by a network cable to the computer’s network card (usually built into the motherboard), and a telephone line wire is connected to the modem itself. External modems have their own power supply, connected to the mains.
ADSL modems ( Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line – asymmetric digital subscriber line) are currently very popular . Such modems have several advantages: firstly, they allow you to exchange data at high speeds, and secondly, do not occupy the telephone line. This means that you can talk on the phone and use the Internet at the same time.
Before you purchase a modem, you need to decide through which provider you will access the Internet. A provider is an organization that provides Internet connection services. Typically, the provider recommends the type of modem that is needed to connect.
Uninterruptible power source
In order for you to be able to safely complete work on the computer in case of a power outage, ( UPS – Uninterruptible Power Supply ) are used.
These devices are usually connected to the mains or surge protector, and the computer and monitor are connected to the UPS.
In the event of a power outage or a strong power surge in your network, your computer will not turn off and will not reboot. The UPS takes all the blow.
In essence, a UPS is a rechargeable battery that normally charges from the mains, and in the event of a power outage, it starts to power the devices connected to it. Typically, when the power is turned off, the UPS will signal this with a beep.
Like all batteries, UPSs differ in capacity, that is, the time for which there is enough charge. There are UPSs that will allow you not only to calmly shut down the computer and turn it off, but also to continue to work for several hours, but such devices are quite expensive.
So, we have a system unit , a monitor , a keyboard with a mouse and various peripheral devices . Let’s see what and where to connect.
As we already know, the motherboard is the main board of the computer. A processor , RAM and additional devices such as a video card , network or sound card are installed on it . Also, these devices can already be built into the motherboard (integrated into it).
Motherboards are designed so that the connectors of integrated and installed devices are placed on one side. Accordingly, computer cases are designed so that all the main connectors are displayed on the rear panel of the case. Some of the more popular jacks can also be output to the front panel (for example, a headphone jack or a USB jack).
Different models of motherboards and additional devices that are installed on them can have different connectors. But there is a group of connectors that you are more likely to find on the back of your computer.
Attention! Before connecting devices to a computer, be sure to turn off the device and the computer itself. When connected devices are connected, there is a risk of damage to the device microcircuits, and, accordingly, the device’s failure.
And so, to connect the keyboard and mouse, connectors are used, which are called PS / 2.
These connectors differ only in color: green is for the mouse, and purple is for the keyboard. Typically, the mouse and keyboard connectors are also green and purple.
More and more mice and keyboards are used using the USB connector ( Universal Serial Bus – Universal Serial Bus ). This connector has become very popular and with it a huge number of different devices are connected to the computer, from flash drives, external hard drives to printers, scanners, cameras and video cameras.
The USB connector, unlike other computer connectors, allows you to connect and disconnect devices while the computer is running.
After connecting the device to the computer, the operating system automatically detects the device and tries to independently find and install additional driver programs on the computer that allow you to control the device using the operating system. If the operating system cannot find the necessary driver on its own, then it will seek your help by calling the appropriate dialog box on the monitor screen.
USB connectors have become so popular that they install 2, 4, 6, or even 8 connectors on modern motherboards. Often, manufacturers of computer cases place on the front of the computer several USB connectors for more convenient connection of flash drives, cameras and other devices.
Next, consider the most important connector for connecting a monitor. This connector is usually located on the video card, which is located inside the system unit (installed on the motherboard). In low-cost office computers, the video card can be integrated into the motherboard and the monitor connector can be located elsewhere on the back of the case.
To connect the monitor, there are 4 connectors -( VGA or D-Sub ) and digital ( DVI , Digital Video Interface ).
- D-sub 15pin This is a general connector for analog connection between a personal computer and a display.
- DVI (Digital Visual Interface) A connector for digitally connecting a personal computer to a liquid crystal display.
- When sending a signal from a PC to the display, it can be sent directly to digital without converting to analog, so the image quality is better than D-Sub15pin.
- HDMI (High-definition multimedia interface) A connector for digitally connecting a personal computer to a liquid crystal display.
- It is smaller than DVI and can transmit and receive video, audio, and control signals together with a single cable.
- It is mainly used in digital home appliances such as TVs and DVD recorders, but is also used to connect personal computers and displays.
- Display port This is a next-generation connector for digitally connecting a personal computer and an LCD display.
- It is smaller than DVI, faster than HDMI, and can transmit and receive video, audio and control signals with a single cable.
- Also, a multi-display environment can be easily realized simply by connecting multiple displays in a daisy chain.
D-sub 15pin This is a general connector for analog connection between a personal computer and a display.
DVI (Digital Visual Interface) A connector for digitally connecting a personal computer to a liquid crystal display. When sending a signal from a PC to the display, it can be sent directly to digital without converting to analog, so the image quality is better than D-Sub15pin.
HDMI (High-definition multimedia interface) A connector for digitally connecting a personal computer to a liquid crystal display. It is smaller than DVI and can transmit and receive video, audio, and control signals together with a single cable. It is mainly used in digital home appliances such as TVs and DVD recorders, but is also used to connect personal computers and displays.
Display port This is a next-generation connector for digitally connecting a personal computer and an LCD display. It is smaller than DVI, faster than HDMI, and can transmit and receive video, audio and control signals with a single cable. Also, a multi-display environment can be easily realized simply by connecting multiple displays in a daisy chain.
If you have an LCD monitor, that is, a liquid crystal display, then it makes sense to immediately connect the monitor to the DVI connector. The fact is that the video card generates digital signals that LCD monitors work with. CRT monitors (in which a cathode ray tube is installed) use an analog signal. Therefore, video cards have a digital to analog converter (VGA connector). If you connect the LCD monitor to the analog D-Sub connector, the signal undergoes double conversion, first from digital to analog and then back to digital in the monitor itself. As you know, any transformation occurs with a loss of information, that is, with a loss of quality. Most likely, you simply won’t see a loss in picture quality on the monitor, but it’s more logical to use the connectors for their intended purpose.
How to choose a computer
If you are faced with the task of choosing and buying a computer, then I want to offer you two questions, the answers to which will help you decide:
- For what purpose do you purchase a computer.
- How much money are you willing to spend.
A detailed answer to these questions will help you choose exactly what you need and not overpay the extra money.
Make a list of the tasks that you plan to solve using a computer, for example:
- internet connection
- reading books and information on the Internet
- work in office programs Word and Excel
- watching films
- listening to music and audio books
- storing and viewing photos
You will need this list in order to determine how powerful a computer you need.
I think that you already understood that the computer is a kind of designer, and you can assemble exactly what you need from the components (motherboard, video card, RAM, etc.) yourself.
The principle does not work here – I’ll take something more expensive, so that it lasts for a long time. The fact is that the computer industry is developing very quickly and it makes no sense to buy the most powerful computer for a lot of money, since literally in a year it will cost half the price. In addition, I see no reason to overpay for something that you will never use.
Agree, it’s stupid to buy a video card with a powerful graphics chip designed to process complex 3d-graphics of modern games, and then use the computer only for surfing the Internet or for emailing with friends.
In this case, you can not spend two hundred dollars on a video card, but buy the cheapest video card or purchase a motherboard with an integrated (built-in) video card and thereby save.
Therefore, take this list seriously.
If you plan to use a computer for image processing or video editing, then you should determine the list of programs that will be installed on the computer, and then look at the system requirements of the programs for the computer hardware. The system requirements include the most important parameters of the computer for the operation of the program, such as the processor frequency, the amount of RAM or video memory.
Computers are conditionally divided according to their functional purpose into several main groups.
Office computer – designed to work with office applications, such as Word, Excel or PowerPoint, as well as to work with e-mail and to access the Internet. Office computers are quite capable of playing music and video. True, recently high-quality films (HD, BD or HDTV) have appeared and most likely it will not be possible to watch films of such formats on an office computer.
Also, such computers are quite suitable for old or simple games.
Office computers have a low price and low power consumption, as they use low-power processors . Often, motherboards designed for office computers already have built-in (integrated) devices – a video card , sound and network cards. Some motherboard models have an integrated processor. All these measures can significantly reduce the cost of components, and, accordingly, the total cost of the computer.
If you are not a gamer and do not plan to play modern games, as well as you will not edit the video and use the computer to create 3d graphics, then the office computer is quite suitable for you.
A multimedia computer is a computer that has a universal configuration. That is, it is quite suitable for tasks performed on an office computer, and also allows you to watch movies in high quality, edit and process amateur videos and audio recordings, edit and process photos and images in graphic programs. On such computers it is already possible to run games that are more demanding on computer resources. Such computers are most often purchased as home computers.
Gaming computer – designed for fans of computer games. Modern computer games have realistic graphics, the processing of which requires significant computer resources. Therefore, powerful computers, powerful graphics cards and a lot of RAM are installed in such computers, which in turn greatly increases the cost of the computer.
A graphic station is a computer for professionals. Such computers solve complex graphic problems of video editing or creating complex graphics for games or animated films. Also, such computers are used in design for product modeling and various calculations.
These computers have powerful processors and video cards, a large amount of RAM.
A server is a powerful computer used in networking. Servers work with large flows of information, therefore, to ensure the normal functioning of the network, these computers must be very productive, which affects their cost.
Of all the above groups, office or multimedia computers are most suitable for home use. It is difficult to recommend a computer configuration, since the computer industry is developing rapidly enough and what can be recommended now in a couple of months will no longer be relevant. In addition, everyone needs different and the best option is to select a configuration for a specific person, that is. under those tasks that the computer will solve.